Sebewa Recollector
Items of Genealogical Interest

Volume 26 Number 3
Transcribed by LaVonne I. Bennett

     LaVonne has received permission from Grayden Slowins to edit and submit Sebewa Recollector items of genealogical interest, from the beginning year of 1965 through current editions.

THE SEBEWA RECOLLECTOR Bulletin of The Sebewa Association;
DECEMBER 1990, Volume 26, Number 3. Submitted with written permission of current Editor, Grayden D. Slowins:


DEATHS FOR THE PERIOD: Wayne Jackson, long time member of TSCA.
Wilma Coe, 87, my 8th grade school teacher.
Blanche Foltz, 84, long a Sunfield resident.
Eunice Good Patrick, 84. Her obituary credits her as having been a Sebewa Center teacher.

The SUNFIELD SENTINEL has a new life. The old hot lead linotype maching press. A small personal computer-type of press has taken over. A new grade of white paper improves its appearance.

From the SENTINEL, we learn that our member, Kerry Haynor, has received an ACE award in recognition of five Angel Plane missions he flew to transport patients to treatment centers in other states.
His Angel Plane missions have taken him to Rochester, MN; Phoenix, AZ, and Chicago, IL. He began flying in 1971.

This month marks the retirement of Edgar Fleetham from the Eaton County Commissioners. He had served also on the Eaton County Board of Supervisors making a total of 68 years.

Theo Lenon continues to live at River Inn in Sunfield some six months after his 90th birthday.


Recently I buried Winnie Belle Benschoter, age 95, widow of Don A. Benschoter. I buried him a year and a half ago at age 93. Winnie was the granddaughter of Benjamin Probasco the elder, by his third wife, Dora, and of Dr. George W. Snyder and wife Mary. Winnie’s parents were Henry P. and Eva M. Snyder. Don was the great-grandson of Cornelius and Diana VanBenschoten. He was the grandson of Oliver P. and Mary M. Benschoter and of John M. and Mary A. Bradley. Don’s parents were John M. and Bertella Benschoter.

Don & Winnie and his sister & brother-in-law, Annis & Riley Sandborn, were among my most frequent and welcome visitors at the cemetery. Don & Winnie usually brought two flats of petunias before Memorial Day. That was 120-144 plants and any less would mean omitting some of the shirttail relatives. They honored six generations of Benschoters from Diana to Delores and loved to tell me their history. They also paid tribute to all the Snyders, Probascos, Bradleys, Sindlingers, Williams, Downings, Phoebe Shay, Theodore Shay, Alexander Morgan, Benjamin Smith, Henrietta Collingham, Nancy Hollenback, Elizabeth Smith, William Resevere, etc., etc.

Don had founght in the World War (There was only one back then). His grandfather Bradley and Winnie’s grandfather Snyder were in the Civil War. Neighbors Ernest & Elmer Showerman and Carl McClelland were in the Spanish American War. So Don always identified with us ex-servicemen and women.

Don had been a fairly large farmer for his day, some 320 acres, and raised a sizable family. But he was about 50 when I first knew him & his horses around Portland, and he always had time to lean back and visit. His grandfather Bradley ran the general store at Sebewa. His father John, grandfather Oliver, and great-grandmother Diana all farmed where Don did, and his son Jim is retired there now.

The west half of the cemetery was a logyard for Jacob Collingham’s vertical sawmill when Don was a boy walking to Sebewa “High” School. The school was named for Jacob High, from whose land the schoolground and all the cemetery came originally (It was never a High School). When I recently smoothed the dirt on the grave of Greta Stambaugh, age 91, I found an Indian arrowhead, the first I have found in probably 40 years.

WILFRED’S PLANE TOOK OFF FOR FLORIDA this morning, Monday, December 3, 1990, in a howling snowstorm, the first of the season. We fully expect him to continue to contribute to the Recollector in a meaningful way, although perhaps not quite like in the past, because he has dozens of unfinished stories lying around in his home and in his head. As I wrote on the occasion of his 80th birthday, no-one can succeed Robert Wilfred Gierman as “The” Recollector, but we will continue to provide history, biography, and genealogy.

TAKING LEAVE (by Wilfred Gierman)

There seems to be a few things indicating I should get out of the field a bit and let someone else do the sweating for a while. On Saturday, November 23, been ill with a stomach disorder and after not feeling well all day, I had Wilbur come over and we decided that to see a doctor then I would have to go to Ionia Hospital emergency.

They took me in for an inspection. A little earlier I’d had a fall from low blood pressure after arising and walking. They put on the blood pressure cuff and for several minutes the cuff inflated and the readings were recorded. Meantime another case was prepared and sent to Blodgett Hospital by aero med by helicopter.

I was taken for x-ray, three of them and finally to a hospital bed for the night. Nurses again did the checking for blood pressure, pulse and temperature and I went off to sleep as my room mate began barking then and at about every half hour, only to report next morning he’d had a wonderful night’s rest. Soon they were back checking and I thought I’d soon be discharged. But, NO. They had to see if I could walk. I proved I could and a discharge was given with the proviso I would be in next morning for an Upper GI x-ray. I came in for that and reported next day to my doctor.

He checked me and gave some pills and prescribed more as well as a four point cane which I tried to get at Meijer pharmacy counter. I spent a half hour and got only a few more pills.

Then came Thanksgiving and Zack York dropped in and brought a Thanksgiving tray of food. Next day I finished it. Next day he came again. I heard him at the door and got up from the davenport to meet him. I got as far as the kitchen door when my legs collapsed and I fell. He got me back to the davenport and I never realized quite what had happened.

He did not like that kind of procedure and called my sister, Pauline. Soon it was off to Blodgett Hospital Emergency with all the checking, x-rays and C A T Scan and a few others before putting me to bed---a matter of some three hours. I was told not to get out of bed unless a nurse was present.

By late Monday my blood pressure had increased enough so I could walk properly without a cane and on Tuesday I was released and Pauline and Bob brought me home. There was a bedside telephone and I could use it when I got all the numbers straight. Sometimes I got places I knew not where but they were charged to my home phone and when I get the bill I’ll find out where I had wrongly dialed.

Now I have an airplane ticket for Bradenton, Florida, where I shall be with my brother, Maurice and Vera, his wife at 603 Park Circle 34207, leaving Lansing on a 7:00 a.m. flight. Grayden Slowins will have at least one page for this slightly late Recollector. I am sure he will do well with it and the February and April Issues also. I am sure he will have good volunteer help in putting these pages together, stapling, punching, stamping and mailing.

In a weird way I know I shall miss the frosty mornings, blustery days and will contrast them with the summery days of Florida.


Located as it is on the east side of the Sebewa Creek, it never seemed right for anyone to place a dwelling near it. The Board of Supervisors established it as a Township Cemetery in the early 1850’s. From time to time it grew up to tall grass, weeds and brush. Occasionally someone would make a stir and the township would get it cleaned and fenced. Fences have a way of not being servicible over a long period so occasionally the process was repeated.

Because of its remoteness, it became a natural target of vandals, not once but several times. Vandals seem to like to hear the crack of the vertical slabs that once were popular as markers on burial sites. In various ways these have been repaired so that we do not have a pile of broken markers as can be seen in some old cemeteries.

For the second time this year a group of juveniles arranged a beer party at this inviting place. Care had been taken so that the new fence along the road had a locked gate for vehicles at darkness. A small pedestrian gate is not locked. Earlier this year the new fence had been attacked by a stolen car. When the car was disabled, a second one made a try at it. The fence held although badly damaged. Insurance covered the damage, and repairs were made.

In early October when the beer party occurred, entrance was through the pedestrian gate. Evidently it was a good night for sound to travel. Mrs. VanHouten, living some three quarters of a mile distant, heard the racket and got into her car to explore. She found cars parked at the roadside of the cemetery. She quickly jotted down the license number of one of them.

She returned home and made a call to the Michigan State Police giving them a license number she had seen on that car. When they came to investigate there was a trail of broken bottles, tipped granite markers and again the broken remains of the old vertical markers numbering to just over fifty.

The State Police were able to trace the license number to the car’s owner and soon to the driver. Further intense questioning brought out the names of the people involved and who had done the destructive work. All were juveniles and justice protects their names. Not even this much has had an airing in local papers or the media.

Parents of the parties involved have agreed to pay for the damages.

The Township hired Steve Yenchar and helper of The Lowell Granite Company to reset the tipped stones and to repair the broken ones and that job has been done and the insurance company absolved from their loss.

Once again present a neat appearance.

SEBEWA TOWNSHIP SETTLED IN 1838, ORGANIZED IN 1845 by Grayden D. Slowins, Sebewa Township Clerk:

William Rosevere, Jerry Hummel, Adelbert Northrop, Thomas Gibbs, Hans Arnesen, Frank Cassel, Roger Davenport – plus 2 large urns, Irving Brown, Jacob Sayer, Elmer Showerman, James Cassel, Clarabell Smith, Ralph Cross – no stone 1 large urn, LaVern Erdman, Leonard Cross, Temperance Travis, William Heintzelman, Elijah Braley, Oscar Dravenstatt, George Edgar Halladay, Elihu Halladay, Abel C. Halladay, Apollos Halladay, John Friend, Ben Probasco, Sr., Alonzo Evans, Mortimer Trim, Henry Halladay, James Porter, Francis Weld, Albert Weld, Emma Weld, James Reeder, William O. Reeder, Lorence Lumbert, Caroline Gunn, Elias Stambaugh, John Franks, Allinda Reeder, Lilleous White, Nathaniel Buell, Charles Deatsman, Elizabeth Smith, J. Clark Haskins, Jacob Luscher, Walter Luscher, Nancy Hollenbach.

PHOTO of the following people: “Here is the bus driver crew of ALASKA BOUND Author Virginia Ingram, mother of Marilyn Disch, Kathy Adams, Gladys Mitchell, Beverly Quantrell and Gerrit Douma, the leader.”

ALASKA BOUND Conclusion by Virginia Ingram:

We arrived at Liard River Lodge, Mile 498 Alcan Highway. We went to our rooms, ate dinner (had a nice meal). Marilyn, Kathy and Gerrit went swimming at the hot spring Chalet. Gladys rode along. They drove the bus to get there and had to walk about a quarter of a mile. It was raining very hard. Bev and I were very tired so we stayed behind to get ready for morning. I caught up on my diary and rested my swollen feet from the long ride. At this lodge, there was no electricity and the phones were on party lines. Generators were used for lights, etc. On the way back from the springs Kathy stopped to get a roll of film. I understand she had a proposal of marriage while there. How about that!!!

Saturday, June 30, 1990 – We were up at 4:30, had breakfast on the road at 6:30 a.m. Figure we will be in Fairbanks around noon on Monday. This morning we traveled mostly gravel roads. At one point we had to stop for 29 minutes while they worked on the road, huge road equipment everywhere. We talked to some people in the restaurant who said we’d have a muddy road to travel. Lo and behold the roads were great – neither muddy nor dusty. The rain has soaked into the ground. While we were waiting to move on we all got out and visited with people in line. Marilyn and I talked to a young man who had been in the restaurant that morning. He was on his way to a job for the State of Alaska as a helicopter pilot. He had been in two enlistments for the Vietnam war. He had all of his belongings with him, including a pair of cockatoos he had gotten in Louisiana. We were finally escorted through the roughest part of the road. A stone hit Marilyn’s windshield.

We entered the Yukon at 10:15 a.m. and saw three colored fox, a “cross fox”. Our road signs are not in miles, not kilometers. We had a good lunch at Junction Service Café. Kathy used the men’s restroom by mistake.

We stopped at Gearge’s Gorge. Marilyn had a chance to do some rock hunting. Kathy found a beautiful white stone for her. Even Gerrit found some. However they weren’t as large as the others.

There is one thing I would like to mention. The two-lane highways, where possible had an added lane on the right hand side to allow the slow moving traffic to move over and let the faster moving traffic pass by – much like our hill passing zones. I must say the buses held up very little traffic – unless we were stuck behind RVs.

At Teslin Gas Fill I treated most of the group to ice cream. Because Bev’s stomach was upset, she had a sandwich. Lake Teslin is very beautiful. It runs along the highway for 30 miles. We finally found the field of deep yellow grain – Canola – a non-cholesteral grain grown in Canada, which is used for a vegetable oil.

We arrived at Whitehorse at 8:30 p.m. We went to our motel and found the cost about $20.00 more for each room than we expected. Marilyn and Gerrit tried to get it reduced; but to no avail. The rooms were not the best, no fans, no screens and no air conditioning. However, they were very neat and clean. We ate at a very nice restaurant, a super waitress/hostess. Most of us had their delicious chicken.

We noticed the sketched placemats and were discussing them while we waited for our meal. After dinner the hostess came over and said she wanted us to meet someone – the fellow who sketched the placemats and pictures on the wall. He was a very interesting person and he autographed a placemat for each of us. We had thought of going to the “Follies” after eating but it was too late. We walked around Whitehorse and enjoyed the museum (outside) artifacts including a steam train, train tracks and depot used during gold rush days. Whitehorse sets in a beautiful valley.

Sunday, July 1, 1990 – We had our usual coffee and left Whitehorse at 7:15 a.m. We enjoyed the beautiful snow capped mountains for miles and ice-filled ranges. Some lakes along the road were muddy looking. I understand that’s glacial water. Other lakes and streams were clear as crystal. We saw some dry river beds along the route, having dried up after spring water rush from melting snow from the mountains.

We had breakfast at Hines Junction at “Mother’s Cozy Kitchen”. A waitress there told us about the rough road ahead that she and a friend had traveled a couple of weeks before. Of course it was being worked on. While at Haines Junction we visited their museum which had seismographs measuring earthquake tremors. They also had a miniature scale model of the area.

Gerrit then stopped at Kulane National Park at Sheep Mountain. The park has 8500 square miles. Dall sheep, grizzly bears and mountain-goats are protected, as well as the flora – beautiful plants and flowers. I met some very nice people – three park attendants, a young lady and man and an older lady. This being the first of July they were celebrating their Independence Day and were serving cakes to visitors. I had the honor of being served the first piece and also having them sing their national anthem to me. I enjoyed that very much.

This was their 133 birthday. The young man set the telescope for me so I could look at what seemed to be a dall sheep, at this time of year they are usually on the other side, staying out of the heat and looking for greener pastures. The rest of the group, except for Bev and me, had gone up the mountain. I was unable to climb, so enjoyed myself talking to people and watching the others climb. Gerrit and Gladys reached the top. Marilyn had not gone that far. Kathy was about 25 minutes into the climb and looked down and saw a fresh bear track (she snapped a picture and left the scene and yelled at Marilyn to wait for her). The 25 minute climb became a five minute return trop. No one saw the bear; but Kathy got a beautiful paw picture. This was one of the most enjoyable and beautiful stops. Gladys snapped a post card picture from the mountain top of the lake and mountain across from the park.

We entered Alaska at 4:30 – in the USA once again. My hat off to Canada – a beautiful country and some of the most courteous people I’ve ever met.

Today we went through hail, rain and snow. No problems at customs, just laughed when I said I was along for the ride. Arrived at “Tok” at 6:30, our projected destination. Our lodgings were at “Fast Freddie’s Motel”. We also ate at Fast Freddie’s. We shopped at a little gift shop there. I packed some of my clothes in my sleeping bag for our trip home.

Monday, July 2, 1990 – We had breakfast, fueled and I paid Gerrit for my lodging. Only 205 miles to Fairbanks – last leg of our trip. At 9:00 a.m. we arrived at Delta Junction, the end of the Alcan Highway. We took pictures and shopped for gifts at a nice little center. We drove a short way and stopped at the pipeline at Tanana River. At that point we were under surveillance. A man attending a roadside gift stand I am sure was a government employee, his wife was on surveillance. He was very interesting – had a big Husky dog. The pipeline crosses 800 miles and 800 bridges. The Tanana River Bridge is the longest in Alaska.

Approximately half of the pipeline is above ground, built to withstand earthquakes and high winds. It cost a billion dollars to build and runs from Prudhoe Bay to Valdez.

Our next stop was the world famous “Santa Claus House” North Pole Alaska. A very nice place to shop if you have MEGA BUCKS. A large statue of Santa greets you as you enter the building. Here is where children’s letters are received from all over the world. The street you leave the building on is called Badger Lane! Marilyn’s road name back in Michigan back of our farm.
We arrived in Fairbanks at 2:40 – found our bus terminal – Gerrit got his paperwork done at the office. He arranged to keep one bus so we would have transportation until we boarded the train the next day. The girls parked their buses and transferred all baggage to one bus. Of course the last pictures of the girls and their buses were taken. We drove to the Captain Bartlett Inn where our reservations for the night were – our most expensive of the trip at $105.00 each in the huge place – three floors. Bev and I got turned around and were lost for a few minutes. The rest had gone on to the bus. Finally we found the right exit, of course everyone was waiting for us.

Gerrit took us to a salmon bake for dinner – outdoor, serve yourself, all you can eat. Salmon, halibut and beef ribs plus all kinds of salads, rolls, beverages and dessert. Very good. The rest of the group toured the park and gift shops. I was tired, so returned to the bus. Gerrit brought me a dish of ice cream. After everyone returned to the bus, we drove to the Information Center, a nice park. The Information Center, of course, was closed. The park had a beautiful waterfall and a huge statue of an Eskimo family, in bronze. All around the sides were plaques of the history of Fairbanks.

Since Russian missionaries had been sent there to convert the native people to Christianity, many priests were named. A very few non-Catholic churches were listed. I did find a Star Chapter. I did not see a Masonic Lodge listed but know there must have been one somewhere or there would not have been a Star Chapter. There were many first settlers and organizations. There were far too many plaques for me to read them all. There were nice benches where you could sit and enjoy the peace and quiet of the waterfall. We returned to the Inn and got a fair night’s sleep as that would be our last until we arrived home.

Tuesday, July 3, 1990 – We arose at 5:00 a.m. and went through our usual morning routine – sitting on suitcases to get them closed. We got a baggage cart for our luggage. We all went down the elevator together. Bev and I stuck close since we had a train to catch – our last ride before the train. We ate breakfast at Denny’s and then on to the train station. It took a large 8x8x4 cart to get all our luggage in. Gerrit got the girls’ tickets. I got my own, used my visa card. Gerrit then left us and went to take care of his business and deliver his last bus. He flew down to Anchorage and met us at the airport.

We girls, using the term loosely, since I’m 70 and the others are 33-55. Oh well, it describes us quite well since “we girls” have set a great pace the last few days with our fearless leader at the helm. We left Fairbanks at 8:30 a.m. and for the next 12 hours had a most relaxing train ride. Our tour guide was a very interesting young lady, Kem Hane.

The Engineer saw a moose and called so our guide, Kem, could point it out to us. At that point she told us that the first person spotting a moose would get a pin from the train. Guess who got the pin? “Marilyn”. She watched very intently for about an hour and a half and saw a mother moose and her baby. We all saw them. So the pin was her’s. I think all of the girls enjoyed the young lady, as she spent a lot of time talking with us of interesting topics. She pointed out on one short stop (we may have been picking up passengers) a square white building – one of the first hotels where President Warren G. and Mrs. Harding stayed in 1923 for a few days.

Anyway, the story goes, that he died three days after returning home. You may take your pick of three stories. His wife may have poisoned him for womanizing. He may have gotten food poisoning or died a natural death.

We went through tunnels, over breathtaking gorges and saw small air strips along the way. While we were eating lunch in the dining car, we watched raters on the river – three boat loads – many small towns and villages near the tracks or we went through them. Off in the distance we could see Mount McKinley, the highest mountain peak in North America. Beaver dams dotted the landscape. They say salmon come out of the mucky glacial rivers and go up the clear blue water to spawn.

After six hours into the trip we came to a train coming up from Anchorage. Both trains stopped at the siding. Our young lady guide changed here and went back to Fairbanks and a young man from Anchorage, Todd Schaeffer, would be our entertaining guide for the next six hours. I might add he was very good also. He pointed out several interesting sights along the way. We were still in the beautiful Rockies. In Alaska at this time of year there is only about ¾ hour of darkness. However, daylight didn’t interrupt our sleep the night before. On the 21st of June there is about ½ hour of darkness, occurring around 3:00 a.m. At Hurricane Gulch we crossed a 918 foot bridge. At one point Kathy made a remark and Gladys said she was having one of her “dumb attacks”.

Much of the conversation centered around Kathy and Todd. The question of age came up. Todd is a senior this fall and 17 years old. He said he had to study three hours a day for 10 weeks to prepare himself and qualify for being a guide on the train. Kathy remarked about her 15 year old twins. That was difficult for him to believe---33 years old. It really blew his bubble. He thought she was in her early twenties. If I remember right, he suggested she might grow up. She sure kept things up beat. (We all love her.) The train stopped for a few minutes at Wacilla, the largest growing city in Alaska. With shopping malls, it is a bustling little city. Alaska’s main industries are oil, tourism and fishing.

About six miles north of Anchorage we passed the largest air force base in North America – Elmendorf. Top defense between Alaska and Russia in the second World War. It was the Civil Air Patrol. We also passed the Army’s Fort Richardson.
Anchorage now has about half the state’s population – 400,000. At the beginning of the building of the Alaska Railroad a tent city was set up for about 2,000 workers. It was first named Woodrow, Ship-Creek, Ship-Creek Landing and Anchorage. Anchorage has the largest port in Alaska.

We arrived on schedule. Gerrit had given Gladys money to transport us to the airport. So while she hailed a cab the rest of the girls carried our luggage to the curb. Todd had given us some advice before we left the train. She finally was able to flag a taxi down. In the meantime our thoughtful guide had appeared on the scene to see that we got off okay. (People are great wherever you go).

You couldn’t believe our taxi driver. He had a big old car. We didn’t believe he could possibly get all of the luggage and us in it; but he did. The trunk was bulging, had to tie it down with straps. We kept saying we don’t think you can do it. He kept saying “I’ve done it before”. Well, he did! With about a three foot gap. I could see it all flying out in the street somewhere along the route.

He then stuffed us all in the vehicle for a ten mile ride to the airport. He only charged $12.00 so Gladys tipped him. A porter “white”, very nice man came out and got our luggage and piled it in front of the Morris Airline counter. I gave him a $5.00 tip. As we were going into the terminal, we could see our friend and Fearless Leader there waiting for us. It was good to see him once again. He was “our security blanket” so to speak. He gave each of us our tickets, including me. I reimbursed him upon returning home. We got to the airport somewhere around 8:30 and didn’t leave until 1:30 a.m. on the 4th of July. No one came to the ticket counter until around 10:30 so in the meantime I went to the cafeteria. Kathy and I had dinner with Bev joining us. I went to the ladies’ lounge and tried to catch a wink or two. I figured I had about three hours to rest my feet and legs. The others took turns watching the luggage and shopping or eating until the ticket taker came.

They checked on me occasionally. I ask you, did you ever try to sleep between 1500 flushes, dressing or changing clothes and putting makeup on? I did talk to a very interesting lady from Australia who had traveled extensively.

I asked her which country she liked the best. Without hesitation she replied – “My own”. A good answer. I think most of us feel that way. A couple of the young ladies did stop and asked if I was okay. Of course, I told them I was just resting. It is nice to know there are concerned persons wherever you go.

Finally we were on the plane (Morris Airlines) to Seattle – to catch US Airlines. When we arrived there, Bev and I went to the rest room and once again were separated from the others. We found the US Air ticket counter and sat down to wait. None of our group was there. We thought “oh, well, they would have to show sometime” and decided to stay put. We must have sat there at least half an hour when I was paged. I went to the airline counter and they told me to pick up the phone in the lobby. I did. No one was there. Anyway, I was getting a little upset and glanced up to see Marilyn frantically looking for us. They had gone to the boarding ramp section in another area of the terminal. For the second time in the last two days Bev and I were with our group.

The girls had called ahead and had a wheelchair waiting for me at the Pittsburgh terminal. I was really grateful for their concern and appreciated their thoughtfulness. I don’t think I could have made another trek through a huge terminal. A car came along and picked up Marilyn and I and four others and drove us to our departure station. It was a four hour trip from Seattle to Pittsburgh. I don’t remember how long we had to wait at either city, but we passed over Charlotte on our way to Pittsburgh.

From Pittsburgh to Dayton was only 45 minutes. From Dayton to Lansing was only 35 minutes. I had told the girls “Please don’t get a wheelchair for me at Lansing”. It would scare Bill to death. Of course at our little airport I didn’t really need one.

HOME---There stood Bill, John Sr., Kathy’s Tom and baby Matt. I don’t remember who was waiting for the others. However, I saw Bev walking with her family and Gerrit shaking our hands at the luggage carrier. Believe it or not, all our luggage arrived safe and sound.

I think I was a little rocky. Not having slept from 5 a.m. July 3 to 10:30 p.m. July 4th. It sure was good to see Bill and relate to him the wonderful experience I just had. I had unwound and, exhausted, slept until afternoon on July 5th. Yes, I would do it again!



Last update November 15, 2013